Abstract – The study examines the nexus between diaspora remittances and economic growth in Zimbabwe.  Yearly time series data from 1990 up to 2022 was used to ascertain whether there is any association between emigrants expatriated funds and economic growth. Over the years, diaspora remittances to Zimbabwe have been on an upward trend surpassing a billion mark.   Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was used as the dependent variable whilst diaspora remittances were used as an explanatory variable together with other control variables. Using the Autoregressive Distributed Lags (ARDL) technique, the results indicate that emigrant funds from the diaspora have a positive bearing on the growth of the economy both in the short run and in the long run. Stated differently, an increase in diaspora remittances to Zimbabwe increases the rate of economic growth. Therefore, remittances are a potential source of economic expansion in Zimbabwe and the government should harness on this. The study acclaims that the government should improve the inflows of remittances to Zimbabwe by reducing the associated transactional costs. The government should also provide financial literacy training to the migrant workers and their families so that they appreciate the role played by remittances. In addition, the government should provide sustained monetary incentives in local currency for all the diaspora remittance inflows that are received through formal channels to encourage more remittances.

Keywords: Diaspora Remittances, Economic Growth, Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

[Cite as: Chigombe, J., Connick, A., & Nyabunze, A. (2024). Diaspora Remittances and Economic Growth nexus in Zimbabwe: (1990-2022). Diverse Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, Vol. 6, Issue 1, Pages 1-11.]

Abstract – Digitalisation is an emerging global trend for the development of agriculture through information technology platforms. Small-holder farmers are central to food security and agricultural development, while globalisation and system integration continue to pose challenges in terms of sustainable outputs. Technology has become a necessity to keep farmers in the loop about the changing dynamics of agriculture productivity. A sample size was obtained using the method of empirical saturation. A participatory, deductive, and exploratory approach were employed to examine the effects of digitalisation on the productivity of small-holder farmers using a localised digital module in the Northern region of Ghana. Exploratory research was deemed suitable due to the evolving nature of the study under contention. The study revealed that small-scale farmers use digitalisation to get information about their farm management and market trends.  Digitalisation has positive impacts on the yield of the farmers and partially solved the problem of food security in the research area. The study concluded that digitalisation supports the improvement of small-scale farming productivity by increasing their access to information. It also increases the general household wellbeing in terms of improved income level but partially solves the problem of food security. The paper recommends specialised digital training for small-scale farmers who require digital information to carry out their activities. Furthermore, network operators should extend coverage to the hinterland to facilitate the operation of digital services for small-holder farmers.

Keywords: digitalisation, food security, productivity, Information technology, smart phone, COVID-19 and development

[Cite as: Yussif, A. H. (2023). Digitalisation And Productivity of Smallholder Farmers. Diverse Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, Vol. 5, Issue 3, Pages 1-6.]

Abstract – The efficacy of fiscal policy in determining economic growth and development can be assumed to be determined by tax administration, tax policies, tax efficiency, and tax levels. Using quarterly data, this study investigates the relationship between Botswana’s tax system and economic growth between January 2008 and December 2019. Multivariate regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between various forms of taxation and Botswana GDP on a quarterly basis from January 2008 to December 2019. The research employed a multivariate regression model with Botswana’s GDP as the dependent variable while explanatory variables were; income tax (Ytax), customs tax (custax), minerals tax (min tax), export tax (xtax), property tax (protax), vehicle tax (vehtax), license tax (Litax), and VAT (Vtax). Findings revealed a weak positive relationship between all forms of taxation and Botswana’s GDP. These findings indicate that the Botswana government provides a wide range of services, including health, education, security and defense, social services, and many others. The government heavily subsidizes food and transportation. Thus, citizens in Botswana trust their government to provide basic necessities of life. The study’s findings indicate that all forms of taxation in Botswana have a weak positive relationship with GDP. As a result, direct links between taxpayers and the government should be strengthened. In this regard, it means that tax payers should be given opportunities to express their views on how they perceive the benefits of the funds they contribute to their economy through taxation. Basing on coefficient estimates, lowering the corporate tax rate by ten percentage points can raise the real annual per capita growth rate by 1.1 to 1.8 percentage points. Given an adjusted R2 of 0.89 and a statistical probability of less than 0.05 at the 5% level of test, it appears that a strong relationship exists between GDP and various forms of taxation. Tax policies, efficiency, and administration all point to a shaky relationship between economic growth and tax systems. As a result, Botswana’s fiscal policies are regarded as a poor economic policy for boosting economic growth.

Keywords: economic growth, GDP, taxation, income tax, customs tax, minerals tax, export tax, property tax, vehicle tax, license tax, and VAT

[Cite as: Dzingai, M. E., Musiiwa, R., Chinorwadza, T., & Machete, J. (2023). Assessing The Relationship Between Taxation Policies and Economic Growth: A Case Study of Botswana 2008-2019. Diverse Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, Vol. 5, Issue 2, Pages 1-10.]

Abstract – The study analyzed the trend and determinants of maize production in Zimbabwe for the period between 1990 and 2020. In trend analysis, the study employed descriptive statistics, which revealed a downward general trend for the period under study. Based on the findings, maize production fell by around 35 percent between 1990 to 2020 owing to a combination of factors from prices, policies, and the climatic environment. Moreover, in analyzing the extent of the influence of price and non-price determinants on maize production, a Nerlovian supply response model was employed using time series data for the period under review. The findings indicated positive elasticities for both short and long runs of +0.72 and + 1.91 respectively. The results suggest that maize production was unresponsive to price changes in the short run but more responsive in the long run. The study recommends the setting up of a functional agricultural commodity market and liberalization of the maize market to make it attractive and eliminate efficiencies in the market and production. The study further recommends an amendment of the land tenure systems by making for instance 99-year leases transferable and bankable to attract capital from final institutions and boost agriculture production.

Keywords: maize production, price, and non-price determinants, Nerlovian supply response model, Zimbabwe

[Cite as: Chigombe, J. (2023). Trend Analysis and Determinants of Maize Production in Zimbabwe: (1990-2020). Diverse Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, Vol. 5, Issue 1, Pages 1-10.]

Abstract – The study examines the dynamics of fiscal performance in the Zimbabwean economy. The study used annual time series data starting from the year 1990 up to 2020 to establish the economic factors contributing to budget deficits. During the period under review, Zimbabwe has experienced perpetual budget deficits except during the years 2009, 2010 and 2011 where budget surpluses were chronicled. The fiscal imbalance that has characterised the economic landscape of Zimbabwe have had negative pass-through effect on the broader economy at large. The variable budget deficit was used as the dependent variable whilst the explanatory variables used in the study are unemployment, gross domestic product, gross fixed capital formation, foreign debt, real interest rates, and the lagged value of the budget deficit. Using the full-bodied OLS regression methodology, the empirical results indicated that three variables which are unemployment, gross domestic product, and the legged value of the budget deficit are significant in explaining budget deficits in Zimbabwe. The variables unemployment and the legged value of the budget deficit were found to be positively related to budget deficits whilst the GDP variable was found to be inversely related to budget deficits. It is against this background that this research recommended the government reduce unemployment to increase final demand in the economy which boosts tax revenues thereby reducing budget deficits. The government is encouraged to balance its books and avoid the rolling over of budget deficits to the forthcoming year to avert perpetual deficits. The government also needs to increase gross investment levels in the country to boost GDP which will result in the reduction of the budget deficit via multiplier effects.

Keywords: revenue, gross domestic product, GDP, Zimbabwe

[Cite as: Nyabunze, A. (2022). Assessing the Dynamics of Fiscal Performance in Zimbabwe. Diverse Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, Vol. 3, Issue 8, Pages 1-15.]

Abstract – A Community-Based Organisation (CBO) is a voluntary autonomous association of people designed to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs through a jointly owned and democratically managed organisation. Female participation in Community-based Organisations (CBOs) all over the world is one of the important factors which affect development in most communities. This term paper is about examining the barriers to female participation in CBOs in the Kumbungu District in the northern region of Ghana. The main objective of the study was to examine barriers to female participation in CBOs in the Kumbungu District of Ghana. A qualitative study design was used for the study and a purposive sampling technique was employed to arrive at 32 respondents. Data were collected through interviews with respondents to probe for detailed information on barriers to female participation in CBOs. The findings revealed a low level of participation of respondents, obstacles that serve as barriers challenging the active participation of respondents in their CBOs’, and suggested advocacy and capacity building as mitigating factors to barriers of female participation in CBOs’.  The study concludes that females face socio-economic, socio-cultural, socio-political, and religious barriers in participation in youth associations that served as CBOs in the study area. The study suggested CBOs’ activities on advocacy and capacity building to address the barriers to female participation in CBOs’.  The study, therefore, recommends that CBOs’ should organise sensitisation and training programmes for females on social and economic empowerment.

Keywords: gender, community-based, organisation, participation, barriers, development

[Cite as: Yussif, A. H. (2021). Barriers to Female Participation in Community-Based Organisations in the Kumbungu District of the Northern Region of Ghana. Diverse Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, Vol. 3, Issue 7, Pages 19-32.]

Abstract – The review paper focuses on challenges currently being faced by Rural District Councils (RDCs) in Zimbabwe of corporate governance nature. The performance of Rural District Councils (RDCs) in most parts of the country is being affected by council members who are advancing their interests at the expense of the community. The authors reviewed the literature on corporate governance challenges impeding the functionality of local authorities in Zimbabwe. The authors also looked at how the pillars of corporate governance are being violated by council members at the expense of service delivery in communities. Rural communities are characterized by poor roads and bridges, refuse collection, shortage of water and sanitation facilities, shortage of schools, poor entertainment centers, and under-equipped clinics amongst other determinants. The authors recommended the implementation of proper corporate governance frameworks in Rural District Councils (RDCs) to improve service delivery in communities under their jurisdiction.

Keywords: corporate governance, rural district councils, state-owned enterprises, service delivery, local authorities

[Cite as: Nyamudzodza, J., Mthombeni, A., Siziba, S., Sifile, O., and Manuere, F. (2021). Corporate Governance Practices by Rural District Councils (RDCs) in Zimbabwe. A Review of Related Literature. Diverse Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, Vol. 3, Issue 7, Pages 13-18.]

Abstract – This review is concerned with corporate governance legislative development for State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs). The primary focus is on corporate governance developments in Kenya, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. The authors reviewed the literature on corporate governance development for SOEs with the primary goal of identifying the main malfeasances that have happened at SOEs in Africa so as to allow to authors to make recommendations on how such malfeasances may be reduced. The study used secondary literature sources such as published journals and government reports. The study reveals that in Africa corporate governance development has largely evolved following main corporate scandals that have happened in different parts of the world. The other findings from the review of the literature show that SOEs have been involved in scandals in Africa hence their inefficiencies. The authors recommended that more serious penalties be put for those who practice corporate misgovernance and corruption.  Authors recommended that African countries strengthen non-partisan anti-corruption agencies that may reinforce good corporate governance practices by putting a cog to any corporate governance malfeasances in SOEs.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, Corporate Scandals, Sustenance of State-Owned Enterprises, and State-Owned Enterprises, Corporate governance development

[Cite as: Mthombeni, A., Nyamudzodza, J., Sifile, O., Manuere, F., and Siziba, S. (2021). Redirecting the path of State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs) Through Corporate Governance Legislative Development. A Review of Related Literature. Diverse Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, Vol. 3, Issue 7, Pages 1-12.]

Abstract – The study sought to determine the effectiveness of online learning techniques towards the quality of learning in Nyanga North Secondary Schools in Zimbabwe during the COVID-19 era. The researcher was motivated to carry out the study by the alarming fall in pass rates by students in Nyanga North secondary schools in 2020 national examinations. The unexpected COVID 19 outbreak in 2019 led to subsequent national lockdowns which disrupted the normal way of social life. The emergence of the Covid 19 virus meant education across the globe had to take a new trajectory. The functionality of learning institutions was affected as strict measures were put in place to combat the spread of the deadly virus.  The traditional leaning methods became less effective as the measures which were put into effect promoted distance learning to reduce physical contact between persons. It was therefore incumbent for schools and other learning institutions to embrace new methods of teaching and learning to bridge the gap created by national shutdowns so that learners would not leg behind with their syllabuses. The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of online learning strategies towards the quality of learning in Nyanga North secondary schools. An exploratory research approach was adopted by the research to have a deep understanding of the problem area. The researchers made use of a qualitative research approach where questionnaires were used as the data collection instrument for the study. The population of the study consisted of students from 13 secondary schools in Nyanga North. The study population was 120 students randomly selected from the thirteen secondary schools. The questionnaire response rate was 80% with 96 out 120 students returning fully completed questionnaires. The findings of the study showed that the adoption of online learning was impeded by a number of factors including geographical location of the school, student backgrounds, nature of information and communication technology infrastructure in schools and the experience and knowledge of teachers towards advancing the online learning initiative. The researchers concluded that online learning techniques being adopted by teachers in Nyanga North are not being effective as the teachers do not have the knowhow on conducting online classes due to known and unknown reasons.

Keywords: online learning strategies, secondary schools, Covid 19, E-learning

[Cite as: Nyamudzodza, J., Mthombeni, A., Siziba, S., Sifile, O., and Manuere, F. (2021). The Effectiveness of Online Learning Strategies Adopted by Secondary Schools in Nyanga North, Zimbabwe. Diverse Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, Vol. 3, Issue 6, Pages 12-19.]

Abstract – The paper scrutinizes the role played by customs administrative systems in facilitating women’s cross-border trading activities. Customs and revenue collection authorities are mandated to extract taxes by implementing just and fair duty regimes. Developments in recent decades have emphasized a need to safeguard women’s rights and inclusion in economic systems. Despite all efforts in ensuring gender equality research has proven that women have remained marginalized. With World Customs organization (WCO) conventions which include the Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA) and Revised Kyoto Convention (RKC) in place, it is the responsibility of the customs administration to align their laws, policies and procedures to ensure that women in Informal Cross Border Trade (ICBT) are also covered and their operations protected. Gender equality and diversity play an important role in the achievement of economic and social transformation and this has been reinforced by the inclusion of gender equality in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The article seeks to explore how customs administration can enhance intra-regional trade by managing and regulating informal cross-border trade activities in a gender-sensitive and responsive manner.

Keywords: customs administration, trade facilitation, women, cross border trading, WCO, regional integration

[Cite as: Chiukira, L. (2021). An Assessment of the Role of Customs Institutions in Facilitating Women’s Informal Cross-Border Trade Activities in Southern Africa: The case of Zimbabwe. Diverse Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, Vol. 3, Issue 6, Pages 1-11.]

Abstract – The study investigates whether remittances can help developing countries increase their tax revenue collections. For the period from the second quarter of 2009 through the fourth quarter of 2017, the study used quarterly secondary time series analysis. The study used the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) methodology to construct two basic regression models that take into account two major tax heads that are linked to remittances: income tax and value-added tax. Remittances are measured using three different methods: current period remittances, one period lagged remittances, and remittance squared. Remittances boost both income tax and VAT, according to empirical evidence derived using the OLS approach. As a result, increased remittance inflows have the potential to generate significant additional revenue for the government in the form of income and consumption taxes. The results of both models also showed that tax revenue responds to economic growth in a significant and beneficial way. According to the report, if the government can build a platform that draws more remittances, the Zimbabwe Revenue Authority can generate more revenue. This can be accomplished by lowering the expenses of sending remittances through official channels.

Keywords: Remittance, Tax Revenue, Value Added Tax, Income Tax, Economic Growth

[Cite as: Hamudi, S. (2021). Can Remittance Boost Tax Revenue Collections: A Case Study of Zimbabwe. Diverse Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, Vol. 3, Issue 5, Pages 1-12.]

Abstract – The foreign aid-economic development nexus remains controversial and hence vague as different development economists and researchers give mixed conclusions over the debate. Commanding a place on the list of perpetual recipients of foreign aid, Zimbabwe has its stake in the on-going debate. As one of the perennial beneficiaries of aid, one would expect that at one point aid would cease and countries be self-sustaining. However, this is not the case with Zimbabwe and this leaves one with a question- ‘Is foreign aid ushering in development’? This paper sought to unpack the aid-local development nexus through a qualitative approach. The quantitative approach could not be possible due to data paucity. Through physical evaluation, interviews, questionnaires and focus group discussions in Goromonzi District, results indicated a strong positive impact of aid towards development. However, stakeholder registered some concerns which they felt if attended to would bring more benefits from foreign aid. The study registers some policy recommendations basing on research findings.

Keywords: Foreign Aid, Economic Development, Exploratory, Goromonzi District

[Cite as: Chinorwadza, T., and Siavhundu, T. (2021). Investigating the Nexus Between Foreign Aid and Economic Development: The Case of Goromonzi District, Mashonaland East Province, Zimbabwe. Diverse Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, Vol. 3, Issue 4, Pages 1-8.]

Abstract – There is consensus on the contribution of both public and private health expenditure on health outcomes. Several health funding schemes have emerged over time and National Health Insurance Schemes (NHIS) commands its stake. A myriad of studies were carried out on the impact of NHIS on health outcomes. Though there is a general concurrence on its effectiveness, some countries have failed to establish such schemes and Zimbabwe, the country of study is not an exception. This exploratory study sought to elicit views from selected key stakeholders on the efficacies and odds of introducing an NHIS in the country. Questionnaires and Focus Group Discussions (FDGs) were the main data collection tools used. Responses indicated that 87 % of the stakeholders threw their weight in underscoring the contribution of the introduction of an NHIS towards positively impacting health outcomes. However, all the stakeholders expressed reservation towards the near-future introduction of such owing to the prevailing macroeconomic conditions. The study proffered recommendations basing on the expressed views.

Keywords: National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), Health Expenditure, Health Outcomes

[Cite as: Chinorwadza, T. (2021). An Investigation into the Efficacies of Introducing a National Health Insurance Scheme in Zimbabwe: Insights from Key Stakeholders. Diverse Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, Vol. 3, Issue 3, Pages 21-29.]

Abstract – Nigeria returned to civil rule on 29th May, 1999 and Nigerians were hopeful that their lots would be improved but twenty-one years after, the country is faced with numerous challenges among which are insecurity, poverty, banditry, leadership failure, corruption, electoral malpractice, among others. All these have affected democratic consolidation in the country. This essay examines the challenges of consolidating democracy in the Nigerian Fourth Republic and suggests ways by which such challenges can be addressed. The paper adopts a historical and descriptive method.  Put differently, it is a desk research and relies on secondary data such as books, journals, and internet materials and analyzed using content analysis. The paper argues that the country has not fared better in the last twenty-one years of democratic rule in the country as cases of corruption, insecurity, banditry, and many other social vices have been on the rise. For democracy to be consolidated, there is a need for attitudinal change on the part of the rulers and ruled and adherence to democratic tenets.

Keywords: Democracy, Democratic Consolidation, Nigeria, Fourth Republic

[Cite as: Adeosun, A. B. (2021). The Challenges of Consolidating Democracy in the Nigerian Fourth Republic: A Comment. Diverse Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, Vol. 3, Issue 2, Pages 10-20.]

Abstract – Alcohol consumption in the reproductive age of women is a public health concern because of its health implications on both mother and baby. The outcome of such action is that frequent drinkers may be unaware they are pregnant until after some weeks of gestation. This study assessed the knowledge of reproductive age women on the dangers associated with alcohol consumption during or in pregnancy in the Nadowli-Kaleo District. The study utilized a descriptive cross-sectional design. A sample size of 294 reproductive-age women were selected through a multi-stage random sampling method for the study. Data was collected through researchers’ developed questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was used for the analysis of data collected and chi-square statistics was utilized to test association at a significance level of 95% (0.05). Our findings showed that more than half (56.5%) of the respondents knew that alcohol consumption has some negative effects on human health including the unborn child. Alcohol consumption among women in this study was 62.6%. Low birth weight, attention deficit disorder, mental retardation, and low intelligence quotient were the major dangers identified to be associated with alcohol consumption on the unborn child. Women who had SHS education or were not pregnant were more likely than those who had no level of formal education or pregnant to know that alcohol consumption in pregnancy can cause any of the dangers associated with alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Women generally knew that alcohol consumption has negative effects such as low birth weight, attention deficit disorder, and mental retardation on the unborn child.

Keywords: alcohol, consumption, knowledge, reproductive age, Nadowli-Kaleo

[Cite as: Danyi, M. A., and Kogi, R. (2021). Knowledge on the Dangers of Alcohol Consumption During Pregnancy Among Women of Reproductive Age in Nadowli-Kaleo District, Ghana. Diverse Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, Vol. 3, Issue 2, Pages 1-9.]

Abstract – This paper is aimed at evaluating the nature of competition in Zimbabwe’s short-term insurance sector. Panel data from 19 short-term insurers was utilized from year 2010 to 2017, the author employed the Panzar-Rosse (1987) approach as a proxy for competition. Total Revenue and Premium Revenues were used as dependent variables while size, equity ratio and underwriting risk were used as control variables. The results from the empirical investigation showed that generally short-term insurers in Zimbabwe were operating under monopolistic competition for the better part of the period under review. Thus, findings from the research point out that competition was increasing during the period under review as witnessed by declining H-statistics. The findings of the study will add literature on competition in Zimbabwe’s financial sector and particularly the insurance sector. This is the first study to evaluate competition in the short-term insurance sector of Zimbabwe. To the best of the author’s knowledge, this examination is the first to assess competition in Zimbabwe’s short-term insurance sector.

Keywords: Panzar-Rosse, H-Statistics, Contestability

[Cite as: Musiiwa, R., and Dzingai, M. E. (2021). An Evaluation of Competition in Zimbabwe’s Short-Term Insurance Sector: An Application of the Panzar-Rosse Approach. Diverse Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, Vol. 3, Issue 2, Pages 1-12.]

Abstract – The paper examines the importance of internationalization of SMEs in the current global set up of international trade. The study identifies the existing MNCs social capital as critical to the growth of SMEs in Africa and promotion of both forward and backward linkages between SMEs and MNCs. Approximations in the studies done accentuates that approximately 95% of the running businesses in the world are Small to Medium Enterprises and they employ about 60% of the total working population and significantly add up to 40% of Gross Domestic Product. It highlights the role which can be played by the state to ensure sustainable economic growth is achieved by inclusion of SMEs in developmental policy. With the proliferation of regional trade agreements in Africa and continued opening of domestic markets to foreign suppliers through trade liberalization, policies have to be matched with external growth of SMEs and domestic industries. As businesses venture into the international markets there are prospects of internal growth and this result in the development of competencies, thus firming competitiveness of the firm in the long run. The paper is concerned with small enterprise development in African countries, concentrating on the interrogation of the prospective for making use of connections and relationships with large business organizations as part of a strategy for the development of the SMEs sector.

Keywords: internationalization, social capital, SMEs, MNCs, networking, linkages, globalization

[Cite as: Chiukira, L. (2021). Internationalization of SMEs through MNCs social capital in African countries. Diverse Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, Vol. 3, Issue 1, Pages 1-11.]

Abstract – Cosine Transformation on Image Coordinates (CTIC) is compression and decompression technique for reduced loss of compression and decompression over Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT). In this research work, the results of CTIC experiment have been verified using a testing image. It has been found that earlier researchers’ claim of loss reduction is not as sufficient as it was claimed by them.

Keywords: Image, Compression, Decompression, DCT, CTIC

Cite as: Al-Aziz, A., Ferdous, M., and Das, S. (2021). Verification of Cosine Transformation of Image Coordinates Model. Diverse Journal of Computer and Information Sciences, Vol. 3, Issue 1, Pages 1-4.

Abstract – The concept of Special Economic Zones (SEZs) being adopted by Government is a positive move towards economic development. SEZs are areas granted special privileges in a country specifically for economic development through foreign business persons to invest into that country. The privileges include special investment policies such as tax easing, financial support and issuance of work permits and special support in infrastructure. Major businesses which usually fall under SEZs are manufacturing, agriculture, commerce, tourism. If implemented accordingly, they assist in employment creation and economic development. There is need to ensure that laws and regulations which address issues of gender, working conditions, human rights and security are well expounded and put into place to avoid their failure. It should be noted that creation of SEZs should not be viewed as a substitute for the country’s large trade and investments reforms as these may lead to total failure of trade policy.

Keywords: SEZs, ZIDA, Tax Incentives, FDIs, Trade Policies, Linkages

[Cite as: Chiukira, L. (2020). Special Economic Zones in Developing Countries: Challenges and Opportunities for Zimbabwe. Diverse Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, Vol. 2, Issue 7, Pages 1-13.]

Abstract – e-GP Access model is the biggest milestone in the history of public procurement. e-GP Access is a globally accepted procurement model introduced by World Bank which has been implemented in different countries to establish more clarity in public procurement. Unbiased consensus decision is a mandatory prerequisite of a free and fair decision making in a public procurement with the presence of all the parties and entities involved in practicing procurement. In this work, a Decision Engine has been incorporated in e-GP Access to make this model rather engineered than policy framed. Four subsystems of Decision Engine – Risk Identifier, Bidder Selector, Procurement Maturity Identifier and Anti Spam wire with Security mechanism are outlined grabbed from various scientific works. This model has been turned into an e-Marketplace based model from G2B type.

Keywords: e-GP Access, Public Procurement, Risk, Bidder Selection, Procurement Maturity, Fuzzy MCDM, e-Marketplace

Cite as: Al-Aziz, A., and Azeem, A. (2020). Decision Engine in e-GP Access Model: An Engineering Approach. Diverse Journal of Computer and Information Sciences, Vol. 2, Issue 3, Pages 1-10.